Changes in the security environment of the Baltic States


The main aim of the article is to analyze the security environment of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. The author presents the security dilemmas of the Baltic States before their accession to NATO in 2004 (based on the example of the Republic of Estonia). Subsequently, the author shows the changes that have occurred in the security systems of the Baltic states since the beginning of the hybrid war in Ukraine in 2014. The author also draws attention to key security problems and points to Polish experiences that could be successfully adopted by Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.


Ashmore W., Impact of Alleged Russian Cyber Attacks, „Baltic Security & Defence Review” 2009, vol. 1, no 11.

Balcerowicz B., Obronność państwa średniego, Warszawa 1997.

Davis J., Hackers Take Down the Most Wired Country in Europe, „Wired Magazine” 21.08.2007, available at <>.

Demmer U., Neukirch R., NATO Developed Secret Contingency Plans for Baltic States, „Spiegel Online” 2010, available at <>.

Elak L., Śliwa Z., The Suwalki Gap – Nato’s Fragile Hot Spot, „Zeszyty Naukowe AON” 2016, vol. 103, no 2.

Estonia angry at Russia 'abduction' on border, BBC News, available at <>.

International Institute of Strategic Studies, The Military Balance 2001, 2001, vol. 101.

International Institute of Strategic Studies, The Military Balance 2019, 2019, vol. 119.

International Institute of Strategic Studies, The Military Balance 2019, 2019, vol.119.

Kai-Helin K., The Evolution of Estonian Security Options During the 1990s, 2005.

Kamiński M.A., Intelligence Sources in the Process of Collection of Information by the U.S. Intelligence Community, „Security Dimensions”, 2019, t. 32 s. 82–105,

Kamiński M.A., Military Law in the Republic of Poland, “Safety & Defense” vol. 5, no. 2, 2019,.

Kamiński M.A., Obrona narodowa Republiki Estonii, Toruń 2018.

Kamiński M.A., Prawo bezpieczeństwa narodowego, „Wiedza Obronna”, vol. 268, no. 3, 2019, s. 57-76,

Kamiński M.A., Profesjonalizacja i modernizacja techniczna Sił Zbrojnych RP w pracach ustawodawczych (2008-2010) [w:] Przestępczość w XXI wieku : zapobieganie i zwalczanie: problemy prawno-kryminologiczne, E.Pływaczewski, W.Filipkowski, Z.Rau (eds.), Warszawa 2015.

Lamoreaux J.W., Acting small in a large state’s world: Russia and the Baltic states, „European Security” 2014, t. 23, nr 4.

Møller K., Russian Security Policy - In Search of a Major Power Identity, „Baltic Defence Review” 2000, t. 1, nr 3.

Rublovskis R., Šešelgyte M., Kaljurand R., Defence and security for the small. Perspectives from the Baltic States, 2013.

Rudzīte-Stejskala K., Financing Defense [in:] Apprenticeship, Partnership, Membership: Twenty Years of Defense Development in the Baltic States, Lawrence T., Jermalavičius T. (eds.), Tallinn 2013.

Defense expenditure as a share of GDP and annual real change based on 2010 prices [in:] NATO Public Diplomacy Division, Defense Expenditure of NATO Countries (2010-2017), PR/CP(2017)111, 2017, available at <>.

Eesti Vabariigi julgeolekupoliitika aluste heakskiitmine, Vastu võetud 06.03.2001 (RT I 2001, 24, 134), available at <>.

Estonian Ministry of Defence, Public opinion and national defence, 2018, available at <>

National Security Concept 2008, available at <>.

National Security Concept 2017, available at <>.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Air policing: securing NATO airspace, available at <>.

Riigikaitse arengukava, available at <>.

The Act of 21 May 2001 on reconstruction and technical modernization and financing of the Polish Force Armed, Dz.U. of 2019 No 1453, available at <>

Artykuły recenzowane